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Conservation Around the World

 

Summer Snow Leopard Frenzy in India

The summer field season is a time when our India field team sheds their sub-zero coats, and busily makes the most of the warm weather.  Here’s a quick look at what they have planned for the short, but intense summer season!

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Four Cats in One Day

Our Chinese field braced the bitter cold of the Tibetan Plateau to set out research cameras and was rewarded with a rare sighting of four snow leopards at once – a mother with two cubs and a male cat.

Adapted from a report PhD student Lingyun Xiao

usually solitary, it's a rare treat to encounter more than one cat at once.

It’s a rare treat to encounter more than one of these usually solitary cat at once. Photo courtesy of Shan Shui / Peking University

Suojia, a township located west of Sanjiangyuan National Nature Reserve, is a place where the wildest nature remains.  People moved to this county merely 50 years ago due to an expanding population in other areas. However, the strong winds and cruel coldness of this township are not the most conducive conditions for human inhabitation, which is why we can have numerous wildlife living there, including the mysterious ‘mountain ghost’ snow leopard.

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Even though spring is on its way in most places of the plateau, winter persists in Suojia as if it will never go away.  Our first day was quite sunny and the low temperature didn’t bother us too much.

However, as night fell, the wind began to howl, sounding as if thousands of monsters were shouting together. We struggled to crawl out of our sleeping bags the next morning, knowing it will be a tough day out in the field.

After a whole day fighting with the wind and snow, we succeeded in setting out several camera traps and also observed a lot of animal tracks, including those of two brown bears which led to dens.

This kind of weather is hard for us, but it’s ideal for snow leopards that are looking to hunt.   All day we kept our eyes busy, hoping to witness a snow leopard hunting for wild prey.  We had almost given up hope when we caught a glimpse of two figures sneaking along a cliff.  The big tails could undoubtedly only belong to one animal: the mountain ghost.

the snow leopard mother comes back for her family dinner

the snow leopard mother comes back for her family dinner

Slowly the pair climbed up, and just then we saw the third one! A snow leopard walked quite elegantly in front of where we were.  It crossed the icy river, and didn’t even bother to give us a glance.  Snow leopards are just like this: always keep their own pace, as confident as a king.

We thought it had to be a mother, since the first two who crossed, waiting for this last one to join them.  They reunited on the slope, and beyond our expectation, they began to walk toward us.  Only when we spotted the body of a dead yak on the other side of river bank did we realize what is attracting them. They walked very cautiously and finally stopped to wait.

We prepared to leave not wanting to interrupt the family dinner, when our Tibetan field assistant, Douxiujia, noticed all of the three leopards looked up.  Suddenly, the snow leopard who we assumed to be the mother jumped up and crossed the river again.

She walked along the valley as one of the younger cats jumped up and ran after her, disappearing behind a big rock. The young cat hesitated, and just then we followed its gaze and saw a fourth snow leopard walking down the slope.

From the face and shape we guessed it was a mid-age male, the real king of the territory.  The big male didn’t seem to be bothered by the presence of the other cats and just kept on moving towards yak carcass on the river bank. We never did see the female cat and her possible cub ever emerge from their original hiding post.

chased away by a big male cat, this cub is rushing to rejoin its mother

chased away by a big male cat, this cub is rushing to rejoin its mother

This is the first time in the field we observed the interaction among different snow leopards.  It was interesting to see intimidations not only coming from other species, but from inside the population as well.  I guess as a snow leopard, it would say, I’m just a big cat struggling for everyday life.

All photos courtesy of Shan Shui and Peking University

Highlighting Conservation Success Stories

Guest post by Peter Thomas, founder of Animus Conservation

What is it that makes us want to conserve species, habitats and the nature all around us?

For me, as a marine biologist and wildlife enthusiast who’s worked in some truly remote places, it’s a sense of both wonder and responsibility. This planet we inhabit is perhaps one of only a handful in the universe we know that can support life, and what an incredible array of life we have too. Indeed will man ever find another? Therefore I am constantly reminded of how unique this planet and its wildlife are, and filled with a sense that we should be doing more to look after it.

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Animus founder Peter Thomas in his element

There are many people around the world who share this opinion – researchers, conservationists, politicians and every day members of our communities. Many work tirelessly to help change the fate of wild habitats and species to ensure their survival for the future.

However, one thing that I have always found perplexing is the media’s (and thereby often the public’s) focus on the negative issues regarding wildlife conservation and protection of biodiversity. The old adage there’s no news like bad news springs to mind. Surely we would be better served promoting the success stories as well?

Animus-LogoThis is why in October last year I founded Animus Conservation, a voluntary organisation that promotes conservation success stories for partner wildlife non-government organisations (NGOs) and charities.

I’m generally a glass half full kind of guy and try to see the brighter side of things, but if we don’t promote and share successes, how can we inspire further change, determine the best approaches, or prove to the public and businesses that wildlife conservation and natural resource management are a worthwhile investment?

This is the underlying approach behind Animus Conservation.

Now, after half a year, Animus Conservation is proud to have almost 20 partner NGOs and charities and a good social media presence. Partners include WWF, WildAid, Coral Reef Alliance, Manta Trust, Sumatran Tiger Trust, Blue Ventures (our first supporter) and now an exciting new partnership with the Snow Leopard Trust. It was immediately apparent that all our partners felt that their successes were under-represented and we hope that we are helping to change that. Animus Conservation effectively provides a central repository of conservation success stories for people to access.

We’ve shared stories about reduction of shark finning, development of marine protected areas, wildlife seizures, community education visits, animal rehabilitations, pangolins, tigers, butterflies, gorillas, national parks, re-planting of forests and mangrove, tracking of polar bears, rhinos, elephants, civets and many, many more. We look forward to even more successes over the coming months and sharing updates for the fantastic work done by the Snow Leopard Trust!

We hope 2014 is a good year for wildlife, as we look to continue expanding and sharing conservation successes. After all, it’s often only at the precipice that people find the will to change.

Please check out our website and social media, and if you want to get involved we’d love to hear from you.

Peter Thomas (Founder – Animus Conservation)

www.animusconservation.org

www.facebook.com/animusconservation

 

More Fabulous Pics from Kyrgyzstan

Remote-sensor cameras have become a invaluable research tool to monitor wildlife populations. They’re also offering us more and more glimpses into the lives of the elusive snow leopard; bringing the mysterious cat out of the shadows. (more…)

A View to a Kill

See the first ever photos of a snow leopard’s successful hunt and read photographer Adam Riley’s thrilling account of the unforgettable experience!

During a snow leopard viewing expedition in India’s Hemis National Park, wildlife photographer Adam Riley was able to observe – and take photos of – a cat hunting and killing a blue sheep. He shares his pictures and story with us here.

Text and photos by Adam Riley (INDRI Ultimate Wildlife Tours)

[comment, Snow Leopard Trust, 3/6/2104: 

This is the first ever documentation of a snow leopard kill in the wild. Over the past few years, more and more tourists have been visiting Rumbak, the area in which these photos were taken, hoping to see a wild snow leopard - and many of them have indeed encountered the majestic cat. These visitors have brought visibility to the snow leopard and have helped strengthened local communities' acceptance of the cat - developments that are extremely important for snow leopard conservation. 

However, we strongly feel that tourism in this fragile ecosystem should be practiced responsibly. The number of people visiting a particular area; camping policies and waste disposal plans have to be carefully planned.

In absence of carefully drafted policies for responsible tourism, it is possible that the negative effects of high tourist influx to the ecology of the area may outweigh the benefits it may generate in terms of generating revenue and awareness.

We have decided to share these photos here, because they are important and because we believe our supporters have a high level of interest in them. We hope they will help animate the discussion on responsible tourism in snow leopard habitat.] 

It was our third day in high elevation Hemis National Park, we had awakened before dawn and chugged down a mug of life-giving coffee before ascending a few hundred yards to a knoll above our tented camp in the Rhumbak Valley.

The cat is gathering strength before launching its attack

The cat (center) is gathering strength before launching its attack

At this very spot, on our first afternoon in the park, and within half an hour of officially beginning our Snow Leopard search, our expert local spotter had exclaimed “Shan!!” – the Ladakhi name for Snow Leopard. After a few tense moments and some mild panic, we had all trained our telescopes on a Snow Leopard stalking across a far mountain slope. The distance was extreme, estimated at 2.5-3km, even the cat’s spots were hard to discern, yet we spent an enthralling hour and a half watching it sunning itself on a rock, then rolling like a tabby in loose gravel before setting off, at a remarkably rapid pace, across the mountain slope until it disappeared above a cliff face. Moments later it came barreling down the cliff in a chase, scattering a herd of Blue Sheep in all directions, however it didn’t seem to reach striking distance of any of them. It then disappeared over the mountain ridge, seemingly in disgust!

“High fives” were shared all round, we were elated! We had 9 days in the mountains and by the first day we had already actually clapped eyes on this, the Grey Ghost of the Himalayas, albeit distantly. Seeing a wild Snow Leopard is every wildlife enthusiast’s dream, probably the ultimate and most elusive wildlife experience on the planet. This Holy Grail of sightings was until quite recently, virtually impossible, requiring months of extreme endurance for even the slimmest glimmer of hope. Peter Matthiessen’s famous book Snow Leopard describes such an attempt that proved ultimately unsuccessful in his primary goal of glimpsing a Snow Leopard.

blue sheep, the snow leopard's preferred prey

a herd of blue sheep, the snow leopard’s preferred prey

Knowing this, we were certainly far from disappointed by our experience but we of course all dreamed of a closer view. So the next day we trekked to the Tarbung Valley, lying below our camp. It was on the upper slopes of this valley where our distant Snow Leopard had been observed. By the end of the day our eyes were stinging with the effort of incessantly scanning the slopes surrounding us for another view of this cryptic feline. I hadn’t imagined that there would literally be millions of locations within view at any time where a Snow Leopard could be hiding! By sunset we felt that we were faced with a near impossible task and were grateful for the extreme luck to have obtained our first sighting! However, we were somewhat encouraged by spotting at least 10 herds of Blue Sheep (locally known as Bharal) on the slopes around this lower valley. These sturdy mountain sheep are the preferred diet of the Snow Leopard in this part of its range and the high density of prey was a good indication that a predator should be around!

Our guide explained that camera traps scattered at strategic sites in the three valleys around our camp had revealed that there were no less than 11 resident Snow Leopards in the immediate vicinity! An astounding density for a large predator, especially in such a cold, desert-like environment.

Day three had dawned bright and sunny once again. We opted for a pre-breakfast scan at the knoll above camp from where we had lucked into our first sighting. This time it was our assistant Snow Leopard spotter who uttered the magical word, and after a scramble we were again all watching a much closer Snow Leopard in the Tarbung Valley. The cat actually appeared almost golden in the early morning light and this time we could admire its magnificent thick, blotched pelt, extremely long tail and large head. Snow Leopards are the subject of recent taxonomic debate, sometimes being placed in their own genus Uncia (from their earliest Western name Ounce, an ancient name first given to the Eurasian Lynx; which also occurs in Hemis National Park). However most recent research places them amongst the Panthera. This is the genus of the typical large cats including Lion, Leopard, Jaguar and Tiger. In fact genetic evidence indicates that the Snow Leopard’s closest living relative is the Tiger. Our Snow Leopard sat, quite Cheetah-like, before stalking off and once again rolling in the gravel, apparently an indication of the desire to mask its scent before a hunt. We realized that we could place ourselves much closer to our dream target if we hiked down into the valley where we had spent the previous day, so we left one of our spotters on the knoll with a radio and we descended with bated breath, by-passing camp and breakfast en route!

Half an hour later we were on the slope opposite to where we had seen our Snow Leopard and with directions from our spotter we managed to relocate the cat. It was barely visible at the top of an outcrop about 300m away, cautiously peering over the rocks at us. We settled down and trained our telescopes, cameras and binoculars on the far slope and slowly but surely, our leopard gained confidence until it lifted its whole head and stared at us. As the sun rose and the day heated up, our cat dozed off, all we could see was a paw and the top of its head.

As the shadows lengthened, a herd of ten Blue Sheep made an appearance on the scene. They slowed grazed their way up from the stream cutting through the valley, heading in the general direction of the rocky outcrop in which our Snow Leopard was resting. Closer and closer they approached and our adrenalin levels began to rise, but then the lead sheep changed direction and started moving back down the hill. Seven in total descended but two adults and a juvenile kept moving towards the danger zone…

After an hour the sun dipped over the horizon and the temperatures started to plummet. The three upper sheep stopped grazing and lay down, seemingly bedding down for the night, and we guessed that the show was over. In fact some of our group decided to head back to camp. However after another quarter of an hour these three sheep started grazing again and continued making their way to the lusher grasses growing along the base of the outcrop in which our Snow Leopard was still snoozing. Suddenly the Snow Leopard detected the presence of its prey and sat up on its haunches for the first time since we had relocated it. It began to bob its head from side to side, a clear feline sign of measuring distance and perspective in planning an attack. We could not believe our fortune, could we really be treated to a Snow Leopard hunt – this was beyond our wildest dreams? Then the leopard was moving and it headed along the top of the outcrop, disappearing on the hidden slope opposite to where the sheep were grazing.

unsuspecting sheep before the attack

unsuspecting sheep before the attack

Two minutes later it appeared half way down the outcrop and slightly above the Blue Sheep. First it sat up trying to relocate its prey and once locked on, the cat slunk low and crept into a fault line that ran across the outcrop towards the sheep. Half way across the rocks, it sunk into a hollow, just the top of its head visible as it kept a careful watch. The two adult sheep now began moving away from the attack zone, did they have an instinct that danger was near, or did they know from experience not to dally near rocks where leopards might lie in wait?

However the young sheep carried on oblivious heading higher up the slope along the edge of the outcrop, and closer and closer to the hidden Snow Leopard. By this stage we were all at our wits end and shaking with excitement, was the Snow Leopard going to charge, why was it taking soooooo long? My shoulders were aching with the effort of holding my camera ready for the pounce.

And finally in a blur, everything happened.

The Snow Leopard leapt from its cover, bounding across the rocks in great leaps towards the young Blue Sheep. All three sheep took to flight, creating dust trails in their wake. The speed at which the Snow Leopard closed ground on the young sheep was remarkable as it barreled off the rocky outcrop to open ground, clearing a large rock en route.

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Within seconds the Snow Leopard was on the hapless sheep. After careful scrutiny of images, it seems that the Blue Sheep lost its footing as it tried to escape but in the process it kicked up a load of gravel and dust, right into the Snow Leopard’s face, temporarily blinding the cat. This gave the sheep a vital break and it was able to pull away from the leopard which kept at its heels but was several critical paces behind.

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The two adult sheep has gone their separate ways, one heading downhill away from the danger and the other, possibly the younger sheep’s mother, scrambling up a steep slope. At this point, our young sheep made a tactical error and instead of fleeing downslope, it tried to follow the upper sheep.

AdamRiley16The slope became incredibly steep, almost vertical, and this gave the Snow Leopard its chance to gain ground on its shorter legged target.

Finally the young sheep realized the leopard was almost upon it and bravely pulled a u-turn, heading back down the slope in the direction from which it had come. Snow Leopards have extremely long tails, up to a meter in length and besides storing fat, the tail is utilized as a ‘scarf’ in the winter. This tail is also a valuable rudder and balancing device, thus the Snow Leopard was easily able to perform its own abrupt u-turn and track the sheep back down the slope.

The young sheep cleared a massive jump, but it was the beginning of the end as it could not match the 15m (50ft) jumps that a Snow Leopard can achieve, and within moments the cat was right on its heels.

Extending a paw, the Snow Leopard seemed to ankle-tap the sheep and as it rolled, the cat leapt onto sheep and immediately latched onto its throat. This take at such high speed and on a steep slope meant gravity took its affect and the cat and sheep tumbled over and over each other until the Snow Leopard took control of the situation. The Snow Leopards’ thick pelts have long been highly sought-after artifacts by the people who share its Central Asian range, providing amazing insulation in the cold, but another reason their pelts are so thick must be to protect the leopard when it takes rough tumbles across its rugged, rocky environment.

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For at least 3 minutes the Snow Leopard lay alongside the young sheep, firmly attached to its throat as it suffocated its prey, the Blue Sheep feebly kicking its hind legs intermittently.

Only when it was certain the sheep was dead did our predator finally release its fatal grip and rest alongside its upcoming meal for several minutes catching its breath after such an extreme effort. For the first time in minutes, the Snow Leopard became aware of us again, ensuring we had not moved and were posing no threat on the opposite slope.

Finally the Snow Leopard picked up the Blue Sheep and dragged it across the open area, pretty much following the route of the chase, back to the fault line in the rocks and finally over the rocky outcrop and out of our view where presumably it feasted on its well-deserved meal!

By this time the light was fading fast and we arrived back in camp half an hour later in the pitch dark, still not quite believing what had unfolded before our eyes!

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This was truly an incredible encounter we had been so, so fortunate to witness; a full Snow Leopard hunt from beginning to end including the take and kill. Our Snow Leopard spotter had been working in Hemis for 16 years and he had never seen this happen before nor knew anyone else who had been as fortunate as us. Film crews and professional photographers have spent months and sometimes even years following Snow Leopards and although several thrilling hunts have been captured, as far as we are aware, no successful hunt has ever been photographed! I am exhilarated therefore to be able to share my images and story of this hunt with you.

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This event was observed during a tour arranged and guided by INDRI – Ultimate Wildlife Tours (www.indritours.com). INDRI offer Snow Leopard expeditions annually in October and February, combined with a Royal Bengal Tiger and Indian One-horned Rhinoceros extensions. They also arrange and guide other wildlife tours globally to the world’s last remaining wildernesses in search of iconic wildlife.

Thanks to Adam Riley and Simon Bellingham, INDRI – Ultimate Wildlife Tours